Measurements, Conversions, and Formulas

Important Formulas:

GPM =  gallons per minute =  gallons per acre =  ounces per minute =  miles per hour =  Nozzle spacing (in inches) for broadcast spraying =  Spray width (in inches) for single nozzle =  Band width (in inches) divided by the number of nozzles per band =  Row spacing (in inches) divided by the number of nozzles per row for directed crop foliar spraying = a constant used to convert GPM, MPH, and inches to GPA =  a constant used to convert GPM, MPH, and inches to gal / 1,000 sq ft.

Percentage Mixing: To determine the amount of pesticide needed to make a solution (or suspension) containing a certain percentage of the active ingredient (a.i.), use one of the following formulas:

For emulsifiable concentrates and other liquid formulations–

For wettable powder formulations–

Dairyman’s Square: To create a solution of specific concentration from two solutions of different concentrations or strengths–

Ground Speed Chart

 Speed Time required in seconds to cover course distance MPH 100 ft 200 ft 300 ft 1.0 68 136 205 1.5 45 91 136 2.0 34 68 102 2.5 27 54 81 3.0 23 45 68 3.5 20 39 58 4.0 17 34 51 4.5 15 30 45 5.0 14 27 41 5.5 x 25 37 6.0 x 23 34 6.5 x 21 31 7.0 x 19 29 7.5 x 18 27 8.0 x 17 26 8.5 x 16 24 9.0 x 15 23

x = not recommended

Common Conversion Factors

 Multiply… by… to get… Acres 43,560 Square feet 4,840 Square yards 4,047 Square meters 0.4047 Hectares Centimeters 0.394 Inches 0.0328 Feet 0.01 Meters 10 Millimeters Cubic centimeters 0.06102 Cubic inches 1 Milliliter Cubic inches 16.39 Cubic centimeters Cup 0.5 Pints 8 Fluid ounces 16 Tablespoons Feet 12 Inches 304.8 Millimeters 30.48 Centimeters 0.3048 Meters Gallons 4 Quarts 8 Pints 16 Cups 128 Fluid ounces 231 Cubic inches 3,785 Milliliters 3.785 Liters Gallons of water 8.3453 Pounds of water 3.785 Kilograms of water Gallons per acre 2.47 Gallons per hectare 9.35 Liters per hectare Multiply… by… to get… Grams 0.03527 Fluid ounces 1,000 Milligrams 0.001 Kilograms Hectares 2.47 Acres 107,639 Square feet 10,000 Square meters Inches 25.4 Millimeters 2.54 Centimeters Kilograms 1,000 Grams 35.274 Ounces (dry) 2.205 Pounds Kilograms per hectare 0.89 Pounds per acre Kilometers 3,280.8 Feet 1,093.6 Yards 0.6214 Miles 1,000 Meters Liters 1,000 Milliliters 33.8 Fluid ounces 61.02 Cubic inches 2.113 Pints 1.057 Quarts 0.264 Gallons Meters 39.37 Inches 3.281 Feet 1.094 Yards 100 Centimeters 0.001 Kilometers 1,000 Millimeters Miles 1,760 Yards 5,280 Feet 1,609 Meters 1.609 Kilometers Multiply… by… to get… Miles per hour 88 Feet per minute 1.609 Kilometers per hour Milliliters 0.0338 Fluid ounces 0.06 Cubic inches 1 Cubic centimeter Millimeters 0.0394 Inches 0.1 Centimeters Ounces (dry) 0.0625 Pounds 28.35 Grams Ounces (liquid) 0.125 Cups 2 Tablespoons 6 Teaspoons 0.0078125 Gallons 29.57 Milliliters 0.02957 Liters Parts per million 0.0001 Percent (%) 1 Milligram per liter 1 Milligram per kilogram Percent (%) 10,000 Parts per million Pints (liquid) 2 Cups 16 Fluid ounces 0.125 Gallons 473 Milliliters 0.473 Liters Pounds 16 Ounces 453.6 Grams 0.4536 Kilograms Pounds per acre 1.12 Kilograms per hectare Quarts (liquid) 2 Pints 4 Cups 32 Fluid ounces 946 Milliliters 0.946 Liters Multiply… by… to get… Square centimeters 0.155 Square inches Square feet 144 Square inches 929 Square centimeters 0.0000229 Acres 0.00000929 Hectares Square inches 0.007 Square feet 6.45 Square centimeters Square kilometers 247.1 Acres 0.386 Square miles 100 Hectares Square meters 1,550 Square inches 10.76 Square feet 1.196 Square yards Square miles 640 Acres 259 Hectares Square yards 1,296 Square inches 9 Square feet 8,361 Square centimeters 0.8361 Square meters Tablespoons 0.5 Fluid ounces 3 Teaspoons 0.0625 Cups 14.8 Milliliters Teaspoons 0.17 Fluid ounces 4.9 Milliliters Ton (US) 2,000 Pounds 907.2 Kilograms Ton (metric) 2,204.6 Pounds 1,000 Kilograms Yards 3 Feet 36 Inches 0.914 Meters

Miscellaneous Weights and Measures:

1 acre-inch of water = 27,154.2 gal

1 inch of water per 1,000 sq ft = 623.4 gal

1 milliliter or cubic centimeter of water weighs 1 gram

1 liter of water weighs 1 kilogram

1 gallon of water weighs 8.3453 pounds

1 gallon of water weighs 3.785 kilograms

Aquatic Measures and Formulas:

1 Cubic foot = 62.4 Pounds of water

1 Cubic foot = 7.4805 Gallons

1 Part per million (PPM) = 2.7181 Pounds per acre-foot of water

Acre-feet = Average depth (ft) × Surface area (acres)

Herbicide needed (pounds a.i.) = PPM × Acre-feet × 2.7

Temperature Conversion:

To convert Celsius (oC) to Fahrenheit (oF): multiply by 1.8 and add 32

To convert Fahrenheit (oF) to Celsius (oC): subtract 32 and multiply by 0.56

 Temperature Conversion ºC ºF 100 212 95 203 90 194 80 185 75 176 70 160 65 150 60 140 55 130 50 122 45 113 40 104 35 95 30 86 25 77 20 68 15 60 10 50 5 41 0 32 -5 29 -10 14 -15 5 -20 -4 -25 -13 -30 -22 -35 -31 -40 -40