Statutes and Laws Governing Wildlife and Pesticides

U.S. Code




16 U.S.C. 688-668C Eagle Protection  Act 1940 Prohibits import, export, taking of bald and golden eagles. Civil: $5,000.
Criminal: $100,000/one year, $250,000/two years (second offense)
16 U.S.C. 703-712 Migratory Bird  Treaty Act 1918 Prohibits hunting, taking, possession, etc., of migratory birds. Criminal: $25,000/six months, $250,000/two years (felony sale)
16 U.S.C. 718 Migratory Bird hunting, and Conservation Stamp  Act 1934 Requires hunting stamps prior to taking migratory waterfowl. Criminal: $25.000/six months
18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378 Lacey Act 1981 Ensures humane treatment for wildlife shipped to U.S. Controls smuggling/trade in illegally taken fish and wildlife. Civil: $10,000
Criminal: $100,000/one year $250,000/five years (felony sale/purchase)
16 U.S.C. 1361-1407 Marine Mammal Protection  Act 1972 Moratorium on taking and importation of marine mammals. Defines federal responsibility for conservation of  marine mammals. Civil: $10,000 Ciminal: $100,000/one year
16 U.S.C. 742j-1 The Airborne Hunting Act  1956 Prohibits taking wildlife from aircraft except when protecting wildlife, livestock, or human health. Criminal: $100,000/one year. Allows forfeiture of guns, aircraft, and equipment.
16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act  1966 Guidelines and directives for mangement of wildlife refuges and areas for protection of fish, wildlife, etc. Criminal: $100,000/one year
16 U.S.C. 1521-1453 Endangered Species Act  1973 Prohibits importation, taking, etc., of fish, wildlife, and plants that are listed as threatened and endangered. Also implements the convention or international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora  (CITES). Civil: $25,000 Criminal: $100,000/one year
(knowing violation)
16 U.S.C. 721-731 Upper Mississippi Refuge Guidelines for the upper Mississippi  National Wildlife and Fish Refuge. Criminal: $25,000/six months. Forfeiture of fish, wildlife, guns, fishing equipment, and boats used contrary to the statute.
16 U.S.C. 4901 et seq. Wild Bird Conservation  Act 1992 Moratorium on all imports of exotic birds except for scientific research, breeding, personally owned pets. Civil: $25,000
Criminal: 2 years
7 ;U.S.C. 121-136y Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide  Act 1947* Registration of pesticides; risk/benefit standard; data requirements. Civil: $5,000 (companies and commercial), $1,000 (farmer). Criminal: $50,000/one year (companies), $25,000/one year (applicator), $1,000/30 days (farmer).
33 U.S.C. 2401-2410 Organotin Antifouling Paint Control Act 1988 Prohibits use of antifouling paints on ships <25 meters; toxicity to shellfish. Civil: $5,000
Criminal: $25,000/one year.
16 U.S.C. 4701-4751 Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control  Act 1990 Research into environmental effects of ballast; zebra mussel demonstration project; prevention and control of aquatic nuisance species. Civil: $25,000/day
Criminal: $250,000 (indiv.) or 2 x value of the loss or damage $500,000 (corp.) or 2 x the value of the loss or pecuniary gain/0-25 years

*The first legislation regulating pesticide use was the Insecticide Act of 1910.

Authored by Fred Whitford, et al.

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